Influences on nursing practice Historical influences According to the Fundamentals of Nursing authored by Barbara Kozier, Glenora Erb, Audrey Jean Berman, and Karen Burke, there are historical factors that influenced the development of contemporary nursing practice. In general, these aspects include women's roles, women's status, religious values particularly Christian values, war, society's attitudes, and visionary nursing leadership.
The first transformation was accomplished by ignoring the implications of a long standing distinction between observing and experimenting. To experiment is to isolate, prepare, and manipulate things in hopes of producing epistemically useful evidence. It had been customary to think of observing as noticing and attending to interesting details of things perceived under more or less natural conditions, or by extension, things perceived during the course of an experiment.
To look at a berry on a vine and attend to its color and shape would be to observe it. To extract its juice and apply reagents to test for the presence of copper compounds would be to perform an experiment.
Contrivance and manipulation influence epistemically significant features of observable experimental results to such an extent that epistemologists ignore them at their peril. The logical empiricists tended to ignore it.
A second transformation, characteristic of the linguistic turn in philosophy, was to shift attention away from things observed in natural or experimental settings and concentrate instead on the logic of observation reports.
The shift developed from the assumption that a scientific theory is a system of sentences or sentence like structures propositions, statements, claims, and so on to be tested by comparison to observational evidence. Secondly it was assumed that the comparisons must be understood in terms of inferential relations.
If inferential relations hold only between sentence like structures, it follows that theories must be tested, not against observations or things observed, but against sentences, propositions, etc. Schlick Friends of this line of thought theorized about the syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of observation sentences, and inferential connections between observation and theoretical sentences.
In doing so they hoped to articulate and explain the authoritativeness widely conceded to the best natural, social and behavioral scientific theories. Some pronouncements from astrologers, medical quacks, and other pseudo scientists gain wide acceptance, as do those of religious leaders who rest their cases on faith or personal revelation, and rulers and governmental officials who use their political power to secure assent.
But such claims do not enjoy the kind of credibility that scientific theories can attain. The logical empiricists tried to account for this by appeal to the objectivity and accessibility of observation reports, and the logic of theory testing. Part of what they meant by calling observational evidence objective was that cultural and ethnic factors have no bearing on what can validly be inferred about the merits of a theory from observation reports.
In response to this rationale for ethnic and cultural purging of the German educational system the logical empiricists argued that because of its objectivity, observational evidence, rather than ethnic and cultual factors should be used to evaluate scientific theories.
Less dramatically, the efforts working scientists put into producing objective evidence attest to the importance they attach to objectivity.
Furthermore it is possible, in principle at least, to make observation reports and the reasoning used to draw conclusions from them available for public scrutiny. If observational evidence is objective in this senseit can provide people with what they need to decide for themselves which theories to accept without having to rely unquestioningly on authorities.
Francis Bacon argued long ago that the best way to discover things about nature is to use experiences his term for observations as well as experimental results to develop and improve scientific theories Bacon 49ff.
The role of observational evidence in scientific discovery was an important topic for Whewell and Mill among others in the 19th century. Recently, Judaea Pearl, Clark Glymour, and their students and associates addressed it rigorously in the course of developing techniques for inferring claims about causal structures from statistical features of the data they give rise to Pearl, ; Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines But such work is exceptional.Child development and classroom teaching: a review of the literature and implications for educating teachers$ Denise H.
Danielsa,*, Lee Shumowb aDepartment of Psychology and Child Development, California Polytechnic State University, Faculty Offices North Building, San Luis Obispo, CA , USA. Amongst the multiple theories that provide a foundation for effective academic advising practice are those of student development, cognitive development, career development, learning, decision-making, multiculturalism, retention, personality, moral development, and adult development (Creamer, ).
Theories, Practice, and Evidence edited By Karen Ful B right-a nderson and Patricia a us P os Community Change: Theories, Practice, and Evidence support provided by Bonnie Politz of the Center for Youth Development and Policy Research at the Academy for Educational Development.
Cooper and Denner 2 The concept of culture has come to the forefront of social -science and social policy to address issues of human diversity in psychological processes and performance. International relations (IR) is a branch of political science, that deals with foreign affairs and global issues among the states within the international system, including the roles of states, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations.
Chapter 4 Theories of Social Work Practice Mel Gray Objectives By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: • understand key social work theories • understand the difference among the terms theory, knowledge, perspective, framework, method, approach and model • understand the meaning of key terms such as development, social development.