It should be remembered, however, that the Byzantines called themselves "Romans", and considered their nation to be the continuation of the Roman Empire. Nonetheless, Western Europe remained united spiritually under the pope, who had emerged in the Early Christian period as the supreme figure of Western Christianity and linguistically by Latin, which remained the scholarly tongue of the West. In short, the medieval West was united as Latin Christendom.
Europe around [ unreliable source? The Byzantines and neighbouring Persian Sasanids had been severely weakened by a long succession of Byzantine—Sasanian warsespecially the climactic Byzantine—Sasanian War of — In the mid 7th century AD, following the Muslim conquest of PersiaIslam penetrated into the Caucasus region, of which parts would later permanently become part of Russia.
Over the next centuries Muslim forces were able to take further European territory, including CyprusMaltaSeptimaniaCreteand Sicily and parts of southern Italy. They landed at Gibraltar on 30 April and worked their way northward.
Tariq's forces were joined the next year by those of his superior, Musa ibn Nusair. During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Muslim rule—except for small areas in the north-northwest Asturias and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees.
This territory, under the Arab name Al-Andalusbecame part of the expanding Umayyad empire.
The unsuccessful second siege of Constantinople weakened the Umayyad dynasty and reduced their prestige. After their success in overrunning Iberia, the conquerors moved northeast across the Pyrenees.
Charles Martel's son Pippin the Short retook Narbonneand his grandson Charlemagne established the Marca Hispanica across the Pyrenees in part of what today is Cataloniareconquering Girona in and Barcelona in The Umayyads in Hispania proclaimed themselves caliphs in Birth of the Latin West[ edit ] —[ edit ] This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia.
See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. May Learn how and when to remove this template message The Sutton Hoo helmetan Anglo-Saxon parade helmet from the 7th century Due to a complex set of reasons,[ which?
The Franks, in contrast, were barely any different from their barbarian Germanic ancestors. Their kingdom was weak and divided. Much of this was initially Germanic and pagan. Arian Christian missionaries had been spreading Arian Christianity throughout northern Europe, though by the religion of northern Europeans was largely a mix of Germanic paganism, Christianized paganism, and Arian Christianity.
Through the practice of simonylocal princes typically auctioned off ecclesiastical offices, causing priests and bishops to function as though they were yet another noble under the patronage of the prince.
These monasteries remained independent from local princes, and as such constituted the "church" for most northern Europeans during this time. Being independent from local princes, they increasingly stood out as centres of learning, of scholarship, and as religious centres where individuals could receive spiritual or monetary assistance.
The centralized administrative systems of the Romans did not withstand the changes, and the institutional support for chattel slavery largely disappeared.
The Anglo-Saxons in England had also started to convert from Anglo-Saxon polytheism after the arrival of Christian missionaries around the year The next two hundred years were occupied in trying to conquer these territories from the Byzantine Empire.
The Lombard state was relatively Romanized, at least when compared to the Germanic kingdoms in northern Europe. It was highly decentralized at first, with the territorial dukes having practical sovereignty in their duchies, especially in the southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento.
For a decade following the death of Cleph inthe Lombards did not even elect a king; this period is called the Rule of the Dukes.
The first written legal code was composed in poor Latin in It was primarily the codification of the oral legal tradition of the people.The following is a list of the most cited articles based on citations published in the last three years, according to CrossRef.
The political landscape of medieval Eastern Europe thus consisted of the Byzantine Empire (which ruled lands around the eastern Mediterranean) to the south, and a vast patchwork of (mostly Slavic) kingdoms to the north. In the Early Modern age, this landscape was simplified: Russia emerged as the primary force of the East Slavic .
This is an ideal companion for students of History or European Studies taking modules on Early Medieval Europe or Europe in Late Antiquity. In addition, this is a useful reference work for postgraduate students, scholars and teachers of early medieval ashio-midori.coms: Middle Ages, the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century ce to the period of the Renaissance (variously interpreted as beginning in the 13th, 14th, or 15th century, depending on the region of Europe and on other factors).
Early Medieval Europe The journal is a thoroughly interdisciplinary forum, encouraging the discussion of archaeology, numismatics, palaeography, diplomatic, literature, onomastics, art history, linguistics and epigraphy, as well as more traditional historical approaches.
Local churches were an established part of many towns and villages across early medieval Western Europe, and their continued presence make them an invaluable marker for comparing different societies.