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Open in a separate window Source: WHO [ 70 ]. Nutrition transition Obesity statistics essay a result of urbanization and affluence has been considered as the major cause for the obesity epidemic [ 70 ]. Numerous literatures have documented a marked shift in the dietary pattern worldwide [ 7071 ].
Major dietary changes include a higher energy density diet with a greater role for fat and added sugars in foods, greater saturated fat intake mostly from animal sourcesmarked increases in animal food consumption, reduced intakes of complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber, and reduced Obesity statistics essay and vegetable intake [ 70 — 73 ].
These dietary changes are compounded by lifestyle changes that reflect reduced physical activity at work and during leisure time [ 7174 ].
Several studies have shown that insufficient physical activity is one of the important risk factors of obesity [ 75 — 77 ], and work-related activity has declined over recent decades in industrialized countries whereas leisure time dominated by television viewing and other physically inactive pastimes has increased [ 7174 ].
Social inequality as a result of economic insecurity and a failing economic environment is also considered as one of the probable causes of obesity. A review by Drewnowski [ 78 ] indicates that inequitable access to healthy foods as determined by socioeconomic factors could influence the diet and health of a population.
Energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods become the best way to provide daily calories at an affordable cost by the poor groups, whereas nutrient-rich foods and high-quality diets not only cost more but are consumed by more affluent groups.
Lack of accessibility of healthy food choices [ 79 ] and the commercial driven food market environment [ 80 ] are also considered as other probable causes of obesity. The interaction effects among environmental factors, genetic predisposition and the individual behavior on excess weight gain has received research interests in recent decades.
Observational evidence has shown that susceptibility to obesity is determined largely by genetic factors, but the environment prompts phenotype expression. For instance, a study of healthy Japanese men indicated that a missense variant in the interleukin 6 receptor gene interacted significantly with dietary energy intake levels in relation to the risk of abdominal obesity [ 82 ].
Possible mechanisms by which genetic susceptibility may operate include low resting metabolic rate, low rate of lipid oxidation, low fat-free mass and poor appetite control [ 11 ].
The concept of programming in fetal or postnatal life is firstly established from experimental animal studies. A wealth of evidence from animal studies has demonstrated that exposure to an elevated or excess nutrient supply before birth is associated with an increased risk of obesity and associated metabolic disorders in later life [ 84 ].
Results from epidemiological studies and experimental studies in human also supported that intrauterine or postnatal nutrition could predispose individuals to obesity in later life [ 8485 ].
In a review by Martorell and colleagues [ 85 ], intrauterine over-nutrition as proxied by high birth weight or gestational diabetes is associated with subsequent fatness, and breastfeeding has a protective effect on the development of obesity. In contrast, the evidence that poor nutrition in early life is a risk factor for increased fatness later in life is still inconclusive.
Effectiveness of the Current Public Health Strategies for Risk Factor Reduction and Obesity Prevention A public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance and has been advocated in recent years [ 1186 ].
The development and implementation of obesity prevention strategies should target factors contributing to obesity, should target barriers to lifestyle change at personal, environmental and socioeconomic levels, and actively involve different levels of stakeholders and other major parties.
A proposed framework by Sacks [ 87 ] suggests that policy actions to the development and implementation of effective public health strategies to obesity prevention should 1 target the food environments, the physical activity environments and the broader socioeconomic environments; 2 directly influence behavior, aiming at improving eating and physical activity behaviors; and 3 support health services and clinical interventions.
Examples of policies under each of these groups are reviewed in the following sections. Food, Physical Activity, and Socioeconomic Environments To alter the food environment such that healthy choices are the easier choices, and to alter the physical activity environment to facilitate higher levels of physical activities and to reduce sedentary lifestyle, are the key targets of obesity prevention policies.
There are a wide range of policy areas that could influence the food environments. These areas include fiscal food policies, mandatory nutrition panels on the formulation and reformulation of manufactured foods, implementation of food and nutrition labeling, and restricting marketing and advertising bans of unhealthy foods [ 87 — 89 ].
For instance, some studies have demonstrated that food prices have a marked influence on food-buying behavior. A small study was done in a cafeteria setting and was designed to look at the effects of availability and price on the consumption of fruit and salad.
It was shown that increasing variety and reducing price by half roughly tripled consumption of both food items, whereas returning price and availability to the original environmental conditions brought consumption back to its original levels [ 90 ].
Policy areas influencing physical activity environments include urban planning policies, transport policies and organizational policies on the provision of facilities for physical activity [ 8792 ]. A recent review by Sallis and Glanz [ 93 ] summarized the impact of physical activity and food environments as solutions to the obesity epidemic.What are the numbers behind obesity in the United States and around the world?
This article looks at research statistics for adult and childhood obesity. Obesity: Obesity and fast Food Essay. Obesity Over the years obesity has become one of the most dangerous diseases in the country.
In the movie “Super Size Me”, it’s mentioned that the United States is the country with the most obese people. Research paper on obesity in mississippi statistics. November 25, Views 0. Research paper on obesity in mississippi statistics essay easy sports science research papers purpose of research paper on cyberbullying coupe charlier explication essay disney pocahontas essay response to adrienne rich claiming an education essay historical.
The word "obesity" means too much body fat. It's usually based on your body mass index (BMI), which you can check using a BMI calculator. BMI compares your weight to your height. Persuasive Essay: Childhood obesity Childhood Obesity Introduction Childhood obesity is a serious and life threatening medical situation found in children.
Obesity is buildup of extra deposits of fats in the children.
The childhood obesity has reached to pandemic levels across United States of America. The statistics have shown that Obesity has. This essay will address how and to what extent diet is a contributing factor to increasing levels of obesity in the UK. Other factors to be considered will include physical exercise and genetics.
Other factors to be considered will include physical exercise and genetics.