How to Write A Five-Paragraph Essay Step-by-step instructions for planning, outlining, and writing a five-paragraph essay. When it comes to a successful essay, the most crucial step is the planning. In fact, a properly planned essay will practically write itself. The first advice you should provide students about to embark on an essay-writing adventure, therefore, is to plan what you will write about -- and plan to write about the assigned topic.
Once a project is under way, we need to assess and ensure the accuracy of the data gathered. We have to face the question: At the very least, we must be aware of the limitations of oral history in order not to mislead ourselves into believing that oral history automatically yields accurate renditions of past events.
Because oral history depends upon living people as sources, we have limits; we can go back one lifetime. Because oral history uses spoken, not written sources, the allowable evidence expands.
Even in the absence of written documentation, groups such as women, minorities, and the not-famous have been able to record their own histories and the histories of those they consider important using oral history.
History is no longer limited to the powerful, famous, and rich, and literate. Now history can give us a much more inclusive, and, one hopes, accurate picture of the past. Used to accurately record oral narratives, the inexpensive portable tape recorder helped democratize the gathering of history.
Interestingly, while technology in the form of the tape recorder is responsible in part for the spread of oral history techniques, technology is also to blame in part for the need for oral history. Rather than write letters, for instance, people travel to see each other or they make telephone calls that dissolve into air.
Now electronic mail via computers may make written records even more scarce.
Trained to depend on written records, traditional historians have been known to shudder in horror at the potential problems and inherent weaknesses of oral history. What of the failings of human memory? What of the human tendency to impose a narrative structure on events that may not be closely connected?
What of the self-serving motives of the story teller? What of the power relationships between interviewer and interviewee that affect what and how events are reported?
What of the differences between the spoken and written word? What of the inaccuracies that creep into meaning when trying to put a conversation onto paper?
Well, many of the same problems arise in using written records. Written sources can carry personal or social biases. Written sources occur within a social context. As an example, newspaper accounts contemporary with events often suffer from historical inaccuracy because of the ideological slants of reporters and editorial staff, because of the availability of sources, because of advertisers' interests, and because of the need to sell interesting stories that the public wants to buy.
Yet these same newspaper accounts can be used as historical evidence of people's attitudes and interpretations. Even historical analysis published by professional historians intent on upholding the best standards in their field still falls short of that elusive goal, a complete and totally objective account of events.
How about films and photographs? Can the camera remain objective and give us an accurate view of events? Even visual media give only fragments.Use subtle group control Experts Dominant talkers Shy participants Ramblers Use appropriate conclusion Three Step Conclusion 1.
Summarize with confirmation, 2. Review purpose and ask if anything has been missed, 3. Thanks and dismissal 2 Focus Group InterviewingRichard Krueger First Steps With Focus Group Studies 1. Decide . Focus-group interview and data analysis Thus, it complements the papers by Draper () and Fade () that discuss in detail the complementary role of qualitative data What is a focus-group interview?
A focus group is, . Each of these titles is available under a Creative Commons license (consult the individual text for the license specifics). Click on the title to view the chapter abstract and a downloadable PDF of the chapter.
A focus group is a tool of qualitative research that allows researchers to understand perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes.
The purpose of a focus group is to obtain increased understanding, test assumptions, and gain insights to . The PA school interview is daunting Be prepared, but not to the point that you sound like a robot. Be relaxed, but not too relaxed as that might give the impression you did not do your research.
Inside Two PA School Interviews I interviewed at two PA schools in California in , and they starkly contrasted one another PA School A was comprised of individual Multiple Mini Interviews (MMI) PA. Focus groups are a method of group interviewing in which the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members, serves to elicit information and insights in response to carefully designed questions.