In the human body, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, one of each pair inherited through the egg from the mother, and the other inherited through the sperm of the father.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Early treatment of bleeds in hemophilia patients, both with and without inhibitors, has been shown to be of immense benefit in the overall clinical outcome.
Despite the advantages of treating the bleeding episodes early, significant barriers and limitations remain. The aim of this review is to highlight the various barriers and perceived limitations to early therapy of bleeding episodes, especially in patients who have developed inhibitors to factor VIII.
The peer-reviewed literature was searched for articles on hemophilia patients, with and without Understansing haemophilia essay, and early treatment, to identify the barriers to early treatment and potential impact on patient outcomes.
The most important barrier is the educational barrier, which involves lack of awareness among patients regarding the signs of a bleed, as well as importance of early therapy. It is also common for parents or caregivers of school-age children to exhibit inconvenience and scheduling barriers.
Distance to the treatment center can also play a role here. Some patients experience financial barriers related to cost of clotting factor products, insurance coverage, Understansing haemophilia essay insurance caps and out-of-pocket costs. Rarely, there can also be problems related to venous access or home infusion.
Lastly, multiple psychosocial barriers can prevent adherence to treatment regimens. Identification and addressing these individual barriers will result in improved compliance rates, prevent joint damage, be more cost-effective, and lead to better overall health of these patients.
Treatment options are typically more limited for hemophilic patients with inhibitors compared to those without inhibitors.
In addition, a majority of hemophilic patients live in the developing world, where there is little or no access to factor-replacement therapy, leading to greater mortality and morbidity in the developing world. The time interval from onset of bleeding to rFVIIa administration, the doses and number of injections required to achieve hemostasis, and global response to treatment were recorded for each bleeding episode.
Earlier resolution of, and more rapid recovery from, bleeding episodes 6 2. Improved efficacy at lower dose and lower cost 4 — 6 3.
Reductions in long-term arthropathy 6 4. Reductions in hospitalizations and surgeries required 6 5. Possibility of home treatment 4 Open in a separate window The HemoRec registry in the Czech Republic recorded demographic information along with information regarding primary diagnosis, symptoms, treatments, and adverse events.
Barriers and perceived limitations to early treatment Educational barriers Patients with hemophilia are not always knowledgeable about their disorder or how significantly their personal involvement in treatment can affect outcomes.
Thus, long-term sequelae resulting from untreated bleeds are unknown to them and their families. Lack of awareness concerning the importance of early treatment of bleeding episodes is a common barrier.
Current World Federation of Hemophilia guidelines recommend the treatment of an acute bleed within 2 hours of its initiation.
School-age children may also hide their bleeds for fear of being reprimanded or causing undue stress and financial liability to their family. Parents have reported feeling uneasy about injecting their child, a lack of confidence in their ability to carry out the injection correctly, and fear of causing harm or pain to their child as major challenges in home-based care.
In response to a questionnaire survey distributed between and47 physicians from Europe, the US, Africa, Australia, and Central and South America reported that although they recommend bleeds be treated within 1 hour of onset, in practice only Patients should understand the particulars of their diagnosis and carry information indicating the type and severity of their condition, inhibitor status, type of clotting agent used, and contact information of the treating physician.
Extra care should be taken in childproofing the surroundings, although experts warn against overcompensation and overprotection. Today, many school-age children are technologically savvy and can easily use electronic patient diaries and computerized datamanagement tools to track bleeds and infusions, which may also increase treatment adherence.
The storage and administration of clotting agents also present significant barriers to early treatment. Moreover, administration of a single dose of clotting factor may be as brief as 2—5 minutes for some formulations or greater than 50 minutes for others.
Finally, most clotting agents are not stable enough for room-temperature storage and require refrigeration, and must be reconstituted at room temperature immediately before use, resulting in further treatment delays.
Distance to an HTC remains a difficult barrier to overcome, particularly for patients who live in rural areas, those with no means of transportation, and those with crippling physical disabilities.
Additional options to encourage HTC utilization are listed in Table 3. Hemophilic patients with inhibitors The cost of treating patients with inhibitors relative to patients without inhibitors varies widely in the literature, from a 1.Understansing Haemophilia Essay - Introduction to Haemophilia Haemophilia is a term that is used to describe a collection of hereditary blood disorders which has a lifetime defect in the clotting method of the blood.
It is estimated that 1 in men have haemophilia.
Hemophilia is the oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder. There are two types of hemophilia, A and B. Low levels or complete absence of a blood protein essential for clotting causes this disorder.
Patients with hemophilia A lack the blood clotting protein, factor VIII, and those with hemophilia B lack factor IX. Essay on Haemophilia: Blood and F 9 Haemophilia B. traits to their sons. For example if a female is a carrier, she has one in two precent to pass on her X chromosomes with the gene mutation for haemophilia A or B to a boy.
Sample Essay. The research articles previously mentioned can collectively provide conclusive proof that gene therapy is not only feasible but necessary for the permanent cure of hemophilia A and hemophilia B patients. Understansing Haemophilia Essay. Understansing Haemophilia Essay. Length: words ( double-spaced pages) Rating: Powerful Essays.
Open Document. Essay Preview. Introduction to Haemophilia Haemophilia is a term that is used to describe a collection of hereditary blood disorders which has a lifetime defect in the clotting .
Early treatment of bleeds in hemophilia patients, both with and without inhibitors, has been shown to be of immense benefit in the overall clinical outcome. Despite the advantages of treating the bleeding episodes early, significant barriers and limitations remain.
The aim of this review is to.